How Practical Interventions are Linked to the Theoretical Links:


The article by Chung is a concentration on developments regarding the impact of sexual orientation on vocational conduct. The author goes on to examine current strengths and weaknesses of current literature regarding LGBT people. The author also makes note of how he has decided to include transgendered individuals in the LGBT group and provides a brief history of how this is sometimes "against the grain" since it deals with more than one's sexual orientation and encapsulates their actual gender identity.

According to Chung (2003) there are basically three strengths of current literature. One aspect that Chung (2003) talks about is Theory Development. Chung talks about how scholars have made efforts to explore LGBT issues through theoretical frameworks. Chung (2003) notes Holland's Theory, Super's Theory, and Vocational Psychology of Women. Chung (2003) notes that future research should integrate these approaches to theoretical advancements. The second aspect is Empiracle Research. Chung (2003) notes that recent theoretical advances provide a good foundation for empiracle research in the future. Chung goes on to talk about how the advancement in this field will depend on individual scholars pursuing programmatic research and collaboration among scholars. Finally, Guidelines for Practice are discussed. Chung is hopeful that practice guidelines will be refined and newer instruments will be developed to assess the counselor's competencey with LGBT people.

Chung (2003) also notes the weaknesses of current literature. Chung (2003) first notes that lesbians are still under-represented in empiracle research. The next limitations are Bisexuals and Transgendered Issues. Vocational uissues for bisexuals are almost totally ignored (Chung, 2003). When bisexual issues were specifically addressed, the discussions were limited to how the presented data might not apply to bisexuals rather than what actually does apply (Chung, 2003). Chung (2003) claims that there is virtually no research pertaining to transgendered issues. He goes on to note that while transgendered individuals may encounter their own vocational and adjustment issues, the career counselor also need to gain information about these issues. Counselors should also assess their own amount of ignorance, stereotyping and discomfort regarding transgendered issues. Career assessment is also pointed out and Chung (2003) notes that researchers and counselors need to be careful when selecting and applying traditional career assessment instruments with GLB persons because of reliability and validity concerns. Finally, counselor training needs to be examined and we need to take a look at how prepared our counselors are to deal woth LGBT issues.


Throughout the duration of the interviews and group sessions, Griffin found that while most of the participants initially believed that being homosexual had nothing to do with their abilities as an educator, but they did reveal a special perspective they gained as a result of being such. What they discovered was that they had a profound understanding of what it was like to be a part of a stigmatized minority, which aided in their interaction with other minority students. Regardless of the minority, they had a sensitivity that existed among their students. In regards to students who were questioning their sexuality, or were openly gay, if the educator was comfortable enough to openly disclose to the student, they found they could offer a great deal of guidance and mentoring (Griffin, 1992).

The main theme that Griffin exposed was that empowerment was a profound source of hope and comfort for all that participated in her study. Although she did not discuss specific administrative methods, just having other people to talk to was enough to alleviate some of the stress that they felt. This was especially true for the participants who were still covering their identities and were struggling with their work and personal identities. Having 14 other people to talk to helped them identify common problems, gave them insight, and provided a source of comfort and strength (Griffin, 1992).

Datti (2009) addresses the utilization of Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (SLTCDM). SLTCDM is a broader model and approach to career choice that includes four factors. These factors include: genetic endowment, environmental conditions, instrumental and associative learning experiences, and task approach skills (Datti, 2009). Krumboltz believes that each of these factors interact in various ways that help to explain one's career choice. SLTCDM lists sexual orientation having a genetic predisposition and this provides different experiences for GLBT populations (Datti, 2009). GLBT individuals may see the world from both male and female gender perspectives and may possess each genders personalities characteristics. Environmental factors look into the family traditions, geographical location and legislation as described in Krumboltz SLTCDM theory (Datti, 2009). GLBT populations may live in a location of general acceptance of the unique population. Worldviews may develop differently based on perceptions where GLBT populations exist and do not exist. Career decisions may be limited based on societal norms. Learning experiences consider the comfort in GLBT individuals to become public with their sexual orientation. Finally, task approach skills recognizes that GLBT individuals may take an active or passive approach to career decision making. These factors all play a role in the way counselors use the SLTCDM theory in practice.

Chung (1995) makes it clear the lack of theory guiding counselors for LBGT people’s vocational behavior is of concern (p. 178). With current career development models, Chung (1995) suggests that Farmer’s model might be the most hopeful as this model incorporates personal and environmental factors which are vital for the LGBT group (p. 179). The personal and environmental factors for the LGBT group are so important during the time of sexual identity development.
When examining the personal factors of gay men using Holland’s classification system, results suggested that gay men scored lower in Realistic and Investigative scales and higher in Artistic and Social scales (Chung, 1995, p. 180).

Schmidt and Nilsson (2006) found that when examining adolescence belonging to the LGBT group, that those who reported having higher issues with inner sexual identity conflict and did not have the social supports to assist them where significantly more likely to score lower on career maturity and score higher on vocational indecision. They believed that this shows support for Hetherington's "Bottleneck Theory" which states that the difficulties occur do to career development and sexual identity competing for the same development time.