Literature Review Page


Chojnacki, J. T. & Gelberg, S. (1994). Toward a conceptualization of career counseling with gay/lesbian/bisexual persons. Journal of Career Develpoment, 21, 3-10.

This article talks about the possibility of utilizing the Sexual Identity Formation (SIF) Model by Cass (1979,1984). The authors talk about the person and the environmental sides of the equation that need to be examined when career counseling g/l/b people.
At the heart of career counseling theory, whether called "trait-factor,""matching," congruence," or more recently "person-environment,"
is the importance of the match between people and careers (Chojnacki & Gelberg, 1994).


Stages of the Sexual Identity Formation:
1. Identity Confusion
 2. Identity Comparison
3. Identity Tolerance
4. Identity Acceptance
5. Identity Pride
6. Identity Synthesis



This model is useful to career counselors in that it increases awareness that not all g/l/b persons are alike, that they can differ in the extent that they possess positive g/l/b identities, and that these differences in identity impact career concerns (Chojnacki & Gelberg, 1994).


Proposed Levels of Work Environment Heterosexism:
1. Overt Discrimination
2.. Covert Discrimination
3. Tolerance
4. Affirmation

By asessing where a g/l/b person is in regards to the SIF Model, one can determine what level of work environment that person needs to enter.

The article also lists several references for gathering career information:
Gay Teachers Association
High Tech Gays
Gayyellow Pages


The article also includes two case studies to illustrate where 2 individuals are in terms of the SIF Model and where they want to enter the working world in terms of environment.


This article attempts to show that services to g/l/b persons can be conceptualized within traditional career paradigms, but that awareness and sensitivity to g/l/b issues creates a new dimension of concerns to which career counselors must be responsive (Chojnacki & Gelberg, 1994).

Abby Paine 9/26/2010




Chung, Y. B. (2003). Career counseling with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered persons: The next decade. The Career Development Quarterly, 52, 78-86.
This article is a concentration on developments regarding the impact of sexual orientation on vocational conduct. The author goes on to examine current strengths and weaknesses of current literature regarding lgbt poeple. The author also makes note of how he has decided to include transgendered individuals in the glbt group and provides a brief history of how this is sometimes "against the grain" since it deals with more than one's sexual orientation and encapsulates their actual gender identity.

Strengths of Current Literature:
1. Theory Development - Chung talks about how scholars have made efforts to explore g/l/b/t issues through theoretical frameworks. Chung (2003) notes Holland's Theory, Super's Theory, and vocational psychology of women. Chung (2003) notes that future research should integrate these approaches to theoretical advancements.
2. Empiracle Research - Chung (2003) notes that recent theoretical advances provide a good foundation for empiracle research in the future. Chung goes on to talk about how the advancement in this field will depend on individual scholars pursuing programmatic research and collaboration among scholars.
3. Guidelines for Practice - Chung is hopeful that practice guidelines will be refined and newer instruments will be developed to assess the counselor's competencey with glbt people.

Weaknesses of Current Literature:
1. Lesbians - Chung (2003) notes that lesbians are still under-represented in empiracle research.
2. Bisexual Issues - Vocational uissues for bisexuals are almost totally ignored (Chung, 2003). When bisexual issues were specifically addressed, the discussions were limited to how the presented data might not apply to bisexuals rather than what actually does apply (Chung, 2003).
3. Trangendered Issues - Chung (2003) claims that there is virtually no research pertaining to transgendered issues. He goes on to note that while transgendered individuals may encounter their own vocational and adjustment issues, the career counselor also need to gain information about these issues. Counselors should also assess their own amount of ignorance, stereotyping and discomfort regarding transgendered issues.
4. Career Assessment - Chung (2003) notes that researchers and counselors need to be careful when selecting and applying traditional career assessment instruments with GLB persons because of reliability and validity concerns.
5. Counselor Training - We need to take a look at how prepared our counselors are to deal with lgbt issues.


Opportunities for and Threats to Career Counseling for LGBT Persons:

Opportunities
1. Human Rights Movement - Talks about the current stance on gays in the Military. If counselors are armed with special training in career development and life planning, counselors and counseling psychologists are in a unique position to further this movement by promoting advancements in theory, research and practice for career counseling with LGBT individuals (Chung, 2003).
2. Inclusive Movement - Chung (2003) notes that professional counseling organizations have been slow to include transgenderism into their names and missions.

Threats
1. Economic Depression - Discusses issues regarding a person losing their job and not possibly having their partner to fall back on for insurance. Also mentions that the glbt person might be ousted by their families and will then lack that support system.
2. HIV - Mentions the impact of HIV on one's physical and mental health.

The conclusion of the article notes that there are many avenues of research that still need to be explored pertaining to especially lesbians and transgendered individuals.

Abby Paine 9/27/2010 Okay....going to try a new style today (more in paragraph form): O'Ryan, L. W. & McFarland, W. P. (2010). A phenomenological exploration of the experiences of dual-career lesbian and gay couples. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 71-79. The article begins by talking about the possible stressors of dual-career relationships and how when gays and lesbians are involved, there are even more stressors. O'Ryan and McFarland (2010) identified that workplace homophobia, whether or not to openly acknowledge the gay relationship, how to characterize the couple's relationship, how to introduce one's partner and dealing with social events as extra stressors for gay and lesbian couples. A study was conducted that involved 5 lesbian couples and 4 gay couples, all of whom were commited in their relationships and commited to their careers. All participants had at least a college education. Basically, the study was trying to identify the subjects' experiences regarding the intersection of career and relationships for dual career lesbian and gay couples (O'Ryan & McFarland, 2010). Three major themes were discovered in the research including: planfulness, creating positive social networks, and a shift from marginalization to consolidation and integration (O'Ryan & McFarland, 2010). In regards to planfullness, the article explains the strategies and decisions that need to be made when introducing one's partner at a social function related to work. There are four subthemes under creating positive social networks and there is an explanation about how couple's come to trust certain peiople and open up. The shifting aspect explores how cople's work together to become an integrated and comfortable part of the working world. This mirrors the coming-out process. The author makes a note about tranferability of results and points out that the couples in the study had bachelor's degrees, were ages 20-50, and lived in the Midwest. The results might not be true for people outside of those categories, or for bisexual or transgendered individuals. The article includes an implications for counseling section. O'Ryan and McFarland (2010) stress that a counselor assist lesbian and gay couples in developing strategies to cope with work situations. The authors also note that counselors should help couples construct mutually supported roles and facilitate the teaming-up process used to strengthen relationships. Abby Paine 9/28/10
While sexual orientation may not be a visible issue, it is certainly a workplace issue as careers in the Western culture are characterized by heterosexual orientations. In the article by Gedro (2009), there is clear discrimination in the work place for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LCBT) people (p. 56). When it comes to career development, there is a lack of research that truly addresses the obstacles faced by the LGBT people. Gedro (2009) even noted that Super’s model fails to account for the complications brought upon those who are dealing with sexual identity issues (p.56). The life-span, life-space approach by Super is just incomplete for the LGBT people. In regards to the Theory of Work Adjustment, the discrimination and harassment faced by the LGBT people prevent this group from reaching full satisfaction within their person-environment correspondence (Gedro, 2009, p. 57).
Gedro (2009) also addressed stereotypes held with lesbians and gay men in regards to career choices. Pope (1995) focused research to interventions that can be used for counselors and found the following interventions useful including,

Examining one’s own bias, becoming lesbian/gay affirmative, learning a model of gay/lesbian identity development, becoming familiar with the culture, supplying reading about ‘out’ people, talking openly about employment discrimination, and helping clients overcome internalized negative stereotypes (as cited in Gedro, 2009, p. 57).
Gedro (2009) also went on to note that often times career development and sexual identity are occurring at the same time. Naturally, this can cause a conflict with the LGBT group as many changes are occurring simultaneous causing more stress and confusion to an already difficult situation. Managers and supervisors are often not equipped to handle to multiple difficulties faced by the LGBT people (p. 57). Organizations policies also often fail to include issues faced by LGBT people and leave the LGBT people feeling continued discrimination at the hands of the employer (p.59).
According to lesbian career development as noted by Gedro (2009), lesbians are often stirred away from careers that deal with positions that work with children based on the view that they would have negative sexual influences over them (p. 60). As with gay career development, gay men often are stereotyped into career choices that are more feminine (p.60). Gedro (2009) noted the gay men, compared to lesbian women, have the additional burden of having to face with a sexual identity that is not only discriminated against, but often ‘universally condemned’ (p. 61). Bierema (2002) noted that, “LGBT people continue to face developmental challengers caused by workplace hostility, harassment, and less access to promotional and developmental programs than heterosexuals (as cited in Gedro, 2009, p. 63).
Nicole



Heterosexual people are afforded more opportunities to explore and develop skills in sex role socialization plats than the LGBT group. Many times the LGBT group is afraid of being label or discriminated against. Additionally, the LGBT group is often prevented from working with certain groups, because of the “alleged” tendency to behave unprofessionally (Chung, 1995).